In early 1954 secret weaponry shipments to Cyprus started with the knowledge of the Greek government. Georgios Grivas, formerly an officer in the Greek army, covertly disembarked on the island on 9 November 1954 and EOKA's campaign against the British forces began to grow.A year later EOKA revived its attempts to achieve the union of Cyprus with Greece.It was launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974.The coup had been ordered by the military Junta in Greece and staged by the Cypriot National Guard In July 1974, Turkish forces invaded and captured 3% of the island before a ceasefire was declared.
Around 150,000 people (amounting to more than one quarter of the total population of Cyprus, and to one third of its Greek Cypriot population) were expelled from the occupied northern part of the island, where Greek Cypriots constituted 80% of the population.
Turkish Cypriots quickly adopted the secular program of Turkish nationalism.
Under Ottoman rule Turkish Cypriots had been classified as Muslims, a distinction based on religion.
Turkish nationalism was at the core of the revolutionary program promoted by the father of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938) and affected Turkish Cypriots who followed his principles.
President of the Republic of Turkey from 1923 to 1938, Atatürk attempted to build a new nation on the ruins of the Ottoman Empire and elaborated the program of "six principles" (the "Six Arrows") to do so.